TROUBLE SHOOTING ISSUES OF BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN TROPICAL MARINE ENVIRONMENT
Marine pollution occurs due to the entry of organized or unorganized, point or non – point land based releases of industrial, agricultural and residential waste. Biodegradable organic waste rich in microorganisms lead to potentially harmful effects and alter oxygen cycle, where as excessive inputs of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus stimulate algal growth leading to eutrophication.
Thermodynamics play an important role in chemicals reactions occurring in ocean during degradation of organic waste. The rate of reactions is altered due to temperature and high salinities. This aspect is very crucial while predicting the self purification capacity of the water body. Adequate experimental work pertaining to the order of reaction and thermodynamic constants is essential to prove the basis of the predicted assimilative capacity of the system.
In Mumbai, huge quantity of domestic waste is generated. Due to land restrictions, complete treatment of tertiary level is not feasible. The Municipal administrators take the advantage of coastal location and discharge this waste into the ocean with just meagre preliminary treatment. The disposal practices are advanced and well planned but still expected purification or dilution is not achieved in the near shore region. This has resulted in spoiling the impact zone of coastal areas creating stress on the living biota and non compliance of the marine water quality standards.
Three major issues in coastal system, viz. Operation and control of waste discharges, degradation patterns of pollutants and self purification capacity needs systematic evaluation to maintain favorable conditions for aquatic life. Hence it is essential to study the reaction kinetics and thermodynamic behaviour of the biodegradation of carbonaceous waste occurring under highly saline conditions. Experiments are conducted to confirm the kinetics and thermodynamics of biodegradation of domestic waste water into marine water at variable salinities. The paper presents the findings of kinetic behaviour particularly the values for rate of reaction, Activation energy and related constants.
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