Women Entrepreneurship in Chennai, India – Factors Trigger and Prevent

Main Article Content

Firdouse Rahman Khan


Small and medium enterprises, Women entrepreneurship, Motivating factors, Discouraging factors, Factors related to women entrepreneurial development.


Last four decades of the 20th century has seen faster growth in the women entrepreneurship underpinning the profound success of the globalized Indian economy. The women entrepreneurs encounter numerous challenges in various areas of production, marketing, finance, and other business operations. The objective of this research study is to analyze the various factors affecting the women entrepreneurship development in the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) of the industrial estates of Chennai. The study is focused on 107 women entrepreneurs of the SMEs, who were selected on the basis of random sampling and were contacted through a well-defined questionnaire. The primary data collected was compiled and thoroughly analyzed to arrive at conclusions. A critical analysis was carried out using null hypothesis, Chi-square tests, and ranking tests. The study reveals that the factors such as education, previous experience and employment, and religion play a crucial role in motivating most of the today’s women-run SMEs. Further, this paper critically analyzes the discouraging factors impeding the women entrepreneurial development in the SMEs across the industrial estates of Chennai, the State Capital of Tamil Nadu (India). Our empirical results reveal that the financial impediments discourage the behavior of the women entrepreneurs to the highest degree and preventing their operations causing enormous anguish as governmental financial programs (good on paper) are seldom executed on the ground. Hence, Governmen tought to help the women entrepreneurs through financial assistance especially during the moratorium period of the units, facilitating the acceleration process. Government assistance and adequate financial support as detailed in the Effective Forces Model could only repulse the frictional forces acting against the women entrepreneurs and lead them toward successful entrepreneurship. This research study gives further scope to the researchers to get to the bottom of the iceberg to find out the other factors which could promote women entrepreneurship.
Abstract 516 | PDF Downloads 105


1. Abdalla, A.M. (2007). An exploratory study of women entrepreneurs in Qatar: Their motives, financing preferences and problems. Journal for Global Business Advancement, 4(1), 186-194.

2. Achtenhagen, L., & Welter, F. (2011). Surfing on the ironing board: The representation of women’s entrepreneurship in German newspapers. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 23(9-10), 763-786.

3. Ascher, J. (2012). Female entrepreneurship – An appropriate response to gender discrimination. Journal of Entrepreneurship Management and Innovation, 8(4), 97-114.

4. Baum, J.A., & Singh, J.V. (2006). Evolutionary Dynamics of Organizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2005. As cited in Gitari Caroline Gatakaa, Factors Affecting Women Entrepreneurs’ Financial Performance In: Kenya: A Case of Ngara Market, MBA Project Dissertation, D61/P/9160/2006. University of Nairobi, 2012 p.9.

5. Bruni, A., Gherardi, S., & Poggio, B. (2004). Gender and Entrepreneurship: An Ethnographic Approach. New York: Routledge.

6. BYST (Bharatiya Yuva Shakti Trust). (2009). Youth Entrepreneurship, the YBI Network Approach, The Second Report in YBI’s Making Entrepreneurship Work Series, The Prince’s Youth Business International.

7. Davidson, M.J., & Burke, R.J. (2001). Women in Management Worldwide: Progress and Prospects. 2nd ed. England: Gower Publishing; p. 37.

8. Deshpande, S., & Sethi, S. (2009). Women entrepreneurship in India (problems, solutions & future prospects of development), shodh. Samiksha aur Mulayankan – International Research Journal, II (9-10), 13-17.

9. Gatakaa, G.C. (2012). Factors affecting women entrepreneurs’ financial performance. In: Kenya: A Case of Ngara Market, MBA Project Dissertation. University of Nairobi; p. 16.

10. Goyal, M., & Parkash, J. (2011). Women entrepreneurship in India-problems and prospects. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 1(5), 195-207.

11. Gupta, A.K., & Handa, S. (2004). A study of the nonconventional sources of entrepreneurial finances. Southern Economist, 43(8), 21-25.

12. Jaffarulla A. (1992). Entrepreneurial Development in the Ambattur and Guindy Industrial Estates. Research Report to University of Madras, p. 173.

13. Kalyani, B. (2008). Problems faced by small scale entrepreneurs of the industrial estates of the Madurai region. The ICFAI Journal of Management Research, 7(2), 35-52.

14. Karlan, D.S., & Valdivia, M. (2008). Teaching Entrepreneurship: Impact of Business Training on Microfinance Clients and Institutions, Mimeo. New Haven: Yale University.

15. Kelley, D., Brush, C., Greene, P., & Litovsky, Y. (2013). The global entrepreneurship monitor: 2010 Women’s report, MA, Babson college and Gera Wellesley, 2011 as cited in Jennifer e. Jennings, research on women entrepreneurs: Challenges to (and from) the broader entrepreneurship literature? Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), 668.

16. Khairoowala Ziauddin, N. (1987). Entrepreneurial Development its Concept and Growth. Madras: Mahreen and Mahreen Publications; p. 81.

17. Khan, F.R. (2008). Effective motivational factors of entrepreneurship: knowledge and training – An empirical study in relates to Chennai (South India). Journal for Global Business Advancement, 5(1), 486-510.

18. Khanka, S.S. (2007). Entrepreneurial Development. New Delhi: Published by S Chand & Co. Ltd. p. 7.

19. LalithaRani, D. (1996). Women Entrepreneurs. New Delhi: APH Publishing; p. 307.

20. Mathew, P.M. (1999). Small Enterprises and Regional Development Challenges and Choices. New Delhi: Kanishka Publishers; pp. 20-23.

21. McGrath, C.J., Wadhwa, V.K., & Mitchell L. (2013). The anatomy of an entrepreneur- Are successful women entrepreneurs different from men?, Kauffman, the foundation of entrepreneurship, 2010 as cited in Yogita Sharma, women entrepreneur in India. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 15(3), 10.

22. McGregor, J. (2004). Women in Management in New Zealand, 2004, as cited. In: Davidson, J.M., & Burke, R.J., (Eds.). Women in Management, Worldwide, Facts Figures and Analysis. London: Ashgate; pp. 211-224.

23. Nandagopal, R., & Chinnaiyan, P. (2004). Small scale food processing industries: A case study. Southern Economist, 1, 8-10.

24. Neetu, B. (2007). Economic Reforms and Growth of Small Growth of Small Scale Industries. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications; p. 9.

25. Orhan, M., & Scott, D. (2001). Why women enter into entrepreneurship: An explanatory model. Women in Management Review, 16(5), 232-247.

26. Prasain, G.P., & Singh, N. (2007). Small Scale Industries and Entrepreneurship. New Delhi: Akansha Publishing House; p. 13.

27. Sarri, K., & Trihopoulou, A. (2005). Female entrepreneurs’ personal characteristics and motivation: A review of the Greek situation. Women in Management Review, 20(1-2), 24-36.

28. Stevenson, H.H., & Jarillo, J.C. (2003). A paradigm of entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial management. Strategic Management Journal, 11, 17-27.

29. Suryanarayana, C., & Krishna Mohan, V. (2005). Small Industries Development in India. New Delhi: Anmol Publications P. Ltd.; p.11.

30. Vinesh. (2014). Role of women entrepreneurs in India. Global Journal of Finance and Management, 6(5), 473-480.