Purpose of the Study: The study sought to discover the level of mathematical thinking in mathematical writing among the female students of the intermediate third-level in Riyadh, and thus determine the relationship between the levels of mathematical writing and mathematical thinking among the female intermediate students of the third level.

Methodology: In this research, the descriptive and analytical method is used. The analytical descriptive method was used to analyze 68 books of mathematics textbooks. The study tools consist of the mathematical writing analysis card for the records of the students and to measure their mathematical thinking.

Main Findings: The development of mathematical thinking in mathematics education is the main domain of this research. Through the paper, the researcher explains the students’ mistakes in their mathematical writing.

Applications of this study: The results of this study may serve to guide teachers to take care of student writing, the importance of providing a track record for students' writing and their training in the integrity of mathematical writing, showing them understanding and teaching them to provide appropriate learning.

Novelty/Originality of this Study: In light of the results of the study, the researcher suggests conducting studies such as: determining the relationship between the level of mathematical writing among students and other variables such as achievement, mental ability and problem-solving. The study may also be conducted on the relationship between the teaching practices of the mathematics teachers in the mathematical communication between the students and the construction of a training program to develop the written communication among the students.


  1. Al-Hashimi, A. Md.,&Abada, A. Y. (2010).The level of mathematical thinking among students in the basic grades (3-6) in the Eastern Province of Oman, Mu'tah University.
  2. Atieri, J. (2010). Literacy + Math = Creative connections in the elementary classroom. New York: International Reading Association.
  3. Baxter, J., Woodward, J.,& Olson, D. (2005). Writing in mathematics: An alternative form of communication for academically low-achieving students. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice.A Publication of the Division for Learning Disabilities Council for Exceptional Children, 20(2), 119-135. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2005.00127.x
  4. Casa, T. M., Firmender, J. M., Cahill, J., Cardetti, F., Choppin, J. M., Cohen, J.,&Zawodniak, R. (2016). Types of and purposes for elementary mathematical writing: Task force recommendations. Retrieved from http://mathwriting.eduation.uconn.edu.Accessed on25 July 2017.
  5. Cohen, J. A., Miller, H. C., Casa, T. M., &Firmender, J. M. (2015). Characteristics of second graders’ mathematical writing. School Science and Mathematics, 115, 344−355. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssm.12138
  6. Common Core State Standards Initiative (2010). Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers.
  7. Ediger, M. (2006). Writing in the mathematics curriculum. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 33(2), 120-123.
  8. Evens, H. &Houssart, J. (2004). Categorizing pupils' written answers to a mathematics test question: 'I know but I can't explain'. Educational Research, 46(3), 272-282. https://doi.org/10.1080/0013188042000277331
  9. Fried, M. N.,& Amit, M. (2003). Some reflections on mathematics classroom notebooks and their relationship to the public and private nature of student practices. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 53, 91–112. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025572900956
  10. Flores, A. (2006). How do students know what they learn in middle school mathematics is true? School Science and Mathematics, 106(3), 124-132. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1949-8594.2006.tb18169.x
  11. General Education Evaluation Authority (2016). Announcement of national test results:http://www.peec.gov.sa/.Accessed on 8 May 2018.
  12. Hamada, F. (2006). Mathematical communication skills among students in the preparatory stage. Evaluation study in the light of the original evaluation concept. Journal of Faculty of Education, Assiut, vol. 22, p (2).
  13. Ibrahim, K. A. (2005). General curriculum between theory and practice. Cairo: University Knowledge House.
  14. Kelly, M. (2008). Writing across the curriculum: The importance of integrating writing in all subjects. Retrieved from http://712educators.about.com/cs/writingresources /a/journals.html.Assessed on July 18, 2008.
  15. Kostos, K.,& Shin, E. (2010). Using mathjournals to enhance second graders' communication of mathematical thinking. Early Childhood Education Journal, 38(3), 223-231. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-010-0390-4
  16. Lynch-Davis, K. (2011). Responding to journal writing in the middle grade's mathematics classroom. National Teacher Education Journal, 4(2), 93–96.
  17. Mehdi, A. A., Nasser, M. A., & al-Surhi, F. Y. (2009). Mathematical communication among eighth graders of basic education and its relation to achievement. Al-Andalus University for Social and Applied Sciences, Yemen, p3. 155-191.
  18. Meletiou-Mavrotheris, M.,& Paparistodemou, E. (2015). Developing students’ reasoning about samples and sampling in the context of informal inferences. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 88, 385−404. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-014-9551-5
  19. National Center for Educational Statistics (2009). Reading 2009: National assessment of educational progress at grades 4 and 8. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.
  20. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston VA: NCTM.
  21. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2014).Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All. Reston, VA: Author.
  22. Pugalee, D. K. (2004). A comparison of verbal and written descriptions of students' problem-solving processes. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 55, 27-47. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EDUC.0000017666.11367.c7
  23. Pugalee, D. K. (2005). Writing to Develop Mathematical Understanding. Newport, MA: Christopher Gordon Publishers.
  24. Pugalee, D. K. (2015). Effective Content Reading Strategies to Develop Mathematical and Scientific Literacy: Supporting the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards. Rowman & Littlefield.
  25. Santos, L., &Semana, S. (2015). Developing mathematics written communication through expository writing supported by assessment strategies. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 88(1), 65-87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-014-9557-z
  26. Star, K. M. (2018). The level of mathematical thinking and its relation to achievement in mathematics among students in the tenth grade of basic education in Jordan, Mathematics Education, Egyptian Association of Mathematics Education, 21, p. 10.
  27. TIMSS (2003, 2007, 2011, 2015). Retrieved from: https://timssandpirls.bc.edu/. Accessed on 25 July 2017.
  28. Thompson, L. S. (2010). Writing to communicate mathematically in the elementary school classroom. Ohio Journal of School Mathematics, 61, 36−44.
  29. Tuttle, C. L. (2005). Writing in the mathematics classroom. In J. M. Kenney (Ed.), Literacy strategies for improving mathematics instruction, 24–50.
  30. Van de Walle, J. (2007). Elementary and Middle School Mathematics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.